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Poverty and Development

Poverty and Development (3rd edn)

Tim Allen and Alan Thomas
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p. 605Indexlocked

  • Published in print: 12 October 2021
  • Published online: August 2021

A

B

  • Badhan, Pranab580
  • Bahrain237
  • Bakongo, kingdom of the257b
  • Balla, Surjit380
  • Banco Sol183b
  • Banda, Hastings313b
  • Bangladesh
    • arsenic removal from groundwater419b, 419f
    • female economic activity rate172f
    • gendered nature of poverty30
    • micro-finance183b
    • propriety norms35
    • Rohingya Muslims243
    • unemployment in168
    • violence35
  • Ban Ki-moon20f, 20, 405b, 471–2
  • Bannerjee, A.92
  • Banuri, T.55
  • Barder, Owen335–6
  • Bardhan, P.384
  • Barrett, C. B.111
  • Barth, Fredrik525
  • Barton, J.554
  • basic needs theory484t, 486
  • Bates, Robert505
  • Batuta, Ibn262–3
  • Batwa people, Uganda551b
  • Bauman, Z.38
  • Bayat, Asaf577
  • Beasley, David121
  • Beijing217, 221
  • Beijing World Conference on Women (1995)398
  • p. 607Bell, D.371, 372
  • Ben Ali, Zine el-Abedine364f
  • Beneria, L.171
  • Bengal famine (1943)106, 110, 114, 114t, 115–16
  • Benner, C.174
  • beriberi110
  • Berlin Wall10f, 226, 465
  • Berman, Marshall49–50
  • Bernier, François252
  • Bernstein, H.56b, 58, 59, 79, 180
  • Beswick, D.333
  • Beveridge report (1942)32
  • Bezuidenhout, A.573
  • Big Data451–2, 491–2, 495, 509, 512–13
  • ‘big D development’52–3, 53b
  • bilateral aid agencies95–7, 485
  • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation97, 136, 203, 436, 441
  • bin Laden, Osama535, 539
  • biodiversity
    • future prospects594b
    • palm oil production and consumption215b
    • and primary commodity production213
  • biotechnology
    • development dilemmas21
    • genetically modified crops110, 111
  • birth rates188b, 188
    • and demographic transition189b, 191
    • neo-Malthusianism197
  • Bismarck, Otto von522
  • Block, F.567
  • Bloom, D. E.200
  • Bloomfield, S.385b
  • Blyth, Mark571
  • Boko Haram335
  • Bolivia183b, 347, 348b, 586b
  • Bollyky, T. J.385b
  • Bolsonaro, Jair82b, 335, 376, 377f
  • Bongaarts, J.194b, 202
  • Bons Ventos554b
  • Booth, D.80
  • border walls465, 466f
  • Borlaug, Norman110
  • Boserup, E.396
  • Bosnia229, 232, 234, 240
  • Botswana170, 171
  • Bouazizi, Tarek el-Tayeb Mohamed237
  • Bourdieu, Pierre160
  • Boyce, J.35
  • BRAC86, 93
  • brain drain469
  • Brandt Report326
  • Brasília21
  • Bratton, M.313b
  • Brazil
    • aid donations95
    • anti-democratic government587b
    • biodiversity threats215b
    • conditional cash transfers, and women’s empowerment410
    • Democracy Index367
    • environment210b
    • financialisation of housing573
    • flexible accumulation571b
    • import substitution industrialisation323
    • informal sector work173b
    • ‘June Days’ movement576
    • migration460
    • oil industry214
    • People-Centred discourse on environmental issues222
    • poverty as capability deprivation36f
    • poverty reduction333
    • setbacks in development9
    • and socialism356
    • social movements579
    • UN contributions90
    • urban explosion in325b
  • Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science218b
  • Bretton Woods agreements (1944)91, 319, 320, 321, 325, 569
  • Brexit374, 469, 537, 538, 565b, 577, 595b
  • bricolage in engineering422–3, 422b, 424, 426, 428, 429, 430
  • BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa)12, 99
  • BRICS Development Bank93
  • Britain
    • biodiversity threats215b
    • colonialism8, 116
    • colonial legacy311
    • and colonial state development291
    • Conservative Party538
    • diseases in nineteenth-century133–5
    • food riots112b
    • government spending as percentage of GDP80
    • Great Smog of London209, 217
    • identity politics522
    • inequality570
    • Institution of Civil Engineers416, 424, 428
    • Libyan intervention242
    • market fundamentalism566, 568
    • medical humanitarianism444
    • multiculturalism526
    • nationalism522
    • neoliberalism7b, 11
    • Northern Ireland ‘troubles’227
    • poverty line37
    • Royal Academy of Engineering416
    • and the slave trade279
    • social media374
    • state79
    • UN contributions90
    • UN Security Council91
    • war on terror237
    • war strategies238
    • welfare state32, 63
    • women’s labour force participation402
    • Women’s Suffrage Movement86
    • World Bank91
  • British East India Company106, 252, 276, 297, 301b, 306–7
  • Bromley, S.382
  • Brown, K.553
  • Brown, L. R.196, 197
  • Brown, P.161
  • Brundtland Commission209–10
  • Brycescon, Deborah173–5, 175b
  • Brynjolfsson, E.574b
  • Buen Vivir (good living)72, 560, 561
  • Buganda, kingdom of252, 258
  • Bundy, Colin284–5
  • Burawoy, Michael577, 578
  • bureaucracies, and colonial rule298–300
  • Burkina Faso590b
  • Burma116, 234
  • Burundi235b, 526f
  • Bush, George H. W.10f
  • Bush, George W.95, 237, 533, 534, 537
  • bushfires555b, 556f
  • Butz, W. P.195
  • Buxton, Dorothy107
  • Buzan, B.241b
  • Byzantine Empire262

C

D

E

F

G

  • G7 (Group of Seven)11, 12, 320b, 335
  • G8 (Group of Eight)320b, 333
  • G20 (Group of Twenty)93, 320b
  • G77 (Group of Seventy-Seven)9, 210b, 216, 320
  • GAD (Gender and Development)396–8, 397b
  • Gaddafi, Muammar 237,533
  • Galbraith, J. K.12, 466
  • Galtung, Johan458
  • Gambia140f
  • Gandhi, Indira198, 209
  • Gandhi, Mahatma319, 375
  • Garrett, Leslie, The Coming Plague3, 447
  • Gates Foundation97, 136, 205, 436, 441
  • GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)319, 320, 321, 325, 328
  • GDP (gross domestic product)40, 40b
    • government spending as percentage of80
    • and industrialisation58
    • per capita by world region322f
  • Gellner, Ernest528
  • gender394–5, 395b
    • and climate change551b
    • p. 615differences35
    • and environmental conservation408–9
    • and food distribution401
    • and life expectancy130, 131t
    • rights94
  • gender equality/inequality396, 411
    • conditional cash transfers and women’s empowerment409
    • gender-responsive budgeting410
    • and reproductive health203b, 205
  • gender-responsive budgeting410
  • generalised commodity production51, 52b
  • genetically modified crops110, 111
  • Geneva Convention on the Status of Refugees457–8, 464, 465
  • Geneva Conventions, and war233
  • genocide235b
  • geographical determinism532b
  • geographical information systems (GIS)509
  • Germany
    • Alternative fur Deutschland (AFD)564, 595b
    • biodiversity threats215b
    • far right538
    • nationalism522
    • nation state524
    • Nazi leaders235b
    • reunification of10
    • UN contributions90
  • Ghana
    • independence310b
    • Navrongo Community Health and Family Planning Project201, 201b, 202f
    • neglected tropical diseases137
  • gig economy181, 600
  • Gilgum, S.214
  • Gilley, Bruce312
  • Gilsenan, M.269
  • Gini coefficient42b, 42, 570
  • Ginige, E.375b
  • Glaeser, E. L., Triumph of the City501, 503, 509, 516
  • glasnost346
  • GlaxoSmithKline136
  • Glazer, Nathan524–5
  • Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative (GAVI)443
  • global capitalism11, 12, 52b
  • global cities505b
  • Global Commission for Africa418b
  • global development goals15–20
  • global division of labour18
  • global environment64
  • Global Environmental Management discourse222–3, 222f
  • global financial crisis (2008)7, 12–13, 13b, 18, 21, 45, 112, 321, 334, 575
    • aid levels95
    • COVID-19 response448
    • and culture537
    • economic inequality233
    • Occupy movement86
    • and populism82b
    • sub-prime mortgages570
    • World Bank loans92
  • Global Footprint Network199
  • Global Fund for Aids TB and Malaria (GFARM)443
  • Global Health Initiatives442–3
  • Global Hunger Index113f, 113
  • globalisation11b
    • and capitalism277
    • and culture537
    • and development7, 335
    • developmental challenges for nation states13, 14–15
    • development dilemmas21
    • and famine118
    • future prospects588b
    • ‘great transformation’572
    • INGOs95
    • Iraq’s state builders241
    • neoliberalism7b
    • war and armed conflicts236
  • Global Nutrition Report113
  • global partnership for development15, 16t, 17b, 203b
  • Global South, and social exclusion38, 39
  • global threefold human crisis3, 24, 45, 70
  • global warmingsee climate change
  • Gnassingbe, Faure383f
  • GNI (gross national income)40–2, 40b, 44, 46
    • and development54
    • ODA as a share of96f
  • GNP (gross national product)41b
    • market fundamentalism566
  • ‘Golden Years’ (1950s and 1960s)321–4, 569, 571b
  • Goldin, I.512
  • gold standard7, 567, 568, 570
  • Golooba-Mutebi, F.80
  • ‘good change’, and development48, 49, 50, 73
  • ‘good governance’330–1, 380, 385–9, 390, 581 see also quality of governance
  • Goodhart, D.89
  • Google21, 97
  • Gorbachev, Mikhail10f, 226, 345–6
  • Gough, Kathleen355b
  • Goulet, Denis4
  • governance
    • developmental challenges for nation states14
    • future prospects589b
    • Islamic forms of539
    • outsiders as state builders83b
    • reform components332t
    • states78
  • Grameen Bank183b
  • Gramsci, Antonio85
  • Great Depression7, 568
  • ‘great transformation’502, 564–84
    • authoritarian populism565b
    • disembedding of the economy, social dislocation, and ecological crisis572–5
    • from ‘embedded liberalism’ to the second coming of market fundamentalism568–71
    • flexible accumulation and rise of the precariat571b
    • Fourth Industrial Revolution, societal challenges of574b
    • market fundamentalism and the ‘double movement’ of modern history566–8
    • social democratic countermovement578–81
  • Greece107, 385b, 465, 469
  • Green, Duncan68, 335
  • green growth547, 558, 562
  • p. 616greenhouse gas emissions545, 546–7, 550, 555b, 558, 562
    • palm oil production and consumption215b
    • population growth199
  • Green Revolution110–11, 114, 122
  • Grindle, M.332
  • Grossman, G. M.212
  • Guaidó, Juan348b
  • Guatemala132, 132t, 134t
  • ‘Guest Worker’ schemes463
  • Guha, Ramachandra222
  • Guinea284, 310b, 445–6, 446t
  • Gulf War (1991)10
  • Gupta, Bhaskar Sen419b, 421, 422, 423, 424, 430
  • Guterres, António23b

H

I

  • Ibadan, Nigeria525
  • IBRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development)see World Bank
  • p. 617identity politics522
    • multiculturalism527
  • Ikea97
  • illiberal democracy366, 375–6, 390
  • ILO (International Labour Organisation)168, 172, 183–4, 324, 325
    • children’s rights147
    • technology486
  • IMF (International Monetary Fund)319–20
    • as agent of development91–2
    • globalisation12
    • neoliberalism7b
    • and trusteeship55
    • Washington Consensus570b
  • immanent development50, 50b, 53, 54, 55, 58, 73
  • immigrant detention centres468, 470
  • imperialism276b
    • and pre-capitalist states256–7
  • import-substitution industrialisation13
  • Incas (Peru)258b
  • income
    • and capitalism52b
    • distribution41, 42
    • gender allocation of397b
    • gender pay gap411
    • micro-finance to increase women’s183b
  • indentured labour279b, 281–3, 286t, 463
  • India
    • aid donations95
    • appropriate technology486
    • arsenic removal from groundwater419b, 420b
    • authoritarian populism565b, 581
    • corruption577
    • democracy116
    • and democratisation382
    • economic activity rates171
    • economic growth44, 510b
    • employment178f
    • environment210b
    • epidemiological transition141
    • and European capitalism252
    • female economic activity rate171, 172f, 172
    • financialisation of housing573
    • flexible accumulation571b, 571f
    • food security121
    • globalisation588b
    • Green Revolution110
    • illiberal democracy390
    • industrialisation323
    • industrial pollution217
    • intermediate technology487f
    • MDGs17b
    • Mutiny (1857–58)301b
    • National Metallurgical Laboratory422
    • and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)9
    • People-Centred discourse on environmental issues222
    • poverty and inequality18, 18f, 510b
    • Rajasthan Nutrition Project30b, 44
    • sex ratio of the population402b
    • and socialism348
    • social media375
    • swaraj (radical ecological democracy)72
    • unemployment in168
    • Union Carbide disaster218b
    • urban population503
    • vaccination programmes441
    • values35
    • wind power553
  • Indian sub-continent, terrorist groups in535
  • indigenous knowledge, and climate change555b, 556f
  • individualism
    • and demographic transition190
    • parochial, in liberal democracy372–3
  • individuals
    • and capitalist growth57–8
    • political engagement70
    • poverty8
  • Indonesia
    • capitalist authoritarian regime365
    • gender-responsive budgeting in HIV response410
    • Green Revolution111
    • migration192
    • Muslims in539
    • palm oil production and consumption215b
    • population growth214
    • social capital85
    • and socialism348
    • social movements579
  • indoor air pollution439
  • industrial capitalism58–9, 60b, 62
  • industrial development, environmental impacts208, 209, 212, 214–20, 223
  • industrialisation58, 58b, 59
    • and alternative development72
    • climate change545
    • and colonialism271
    • and demographic transition190
    • and the dependency school61b
    • in developing countries323
    • export substitution323b
  • industry58b
  • inequality335
    • access to water and sanitation514
    • climate change557
    • development dilemmas21
    • and economic growth44
    • Fourth Industrial Revolution574b
    • IMF’s concerns92
    • infant mortality in Britain127
    • Latin America586b
    • at national level39, 42
    • neoliberalism570
    • policy implications in changing global context44–5
    • at regional level39, 42
    • p. 618SDGs20, 42
  • infanticide, and gender401
  • infant industries64
  • infant mortality127b, 198
    • and education150
  • infectious diseases125b, 142
  • informal sector172–4, 173b
    • and government revenue441
    • trade unions579
  • information and communication technologiessee digital technologies
  • infrastructure
  • INGOs (international non-government organisations)
    • children’s rights147
    • hunger and famine107
    • largest by revenue94t
    • war on terror536
  • Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME)436
  • Institution of Civil Engineers416, 424, 428
  • intentional development50, 50b, 52, 53, 54, 63, 68, 76, 335, 336, 559, 601
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changesee IPCC
  • Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services4
  • intermediate technology movement486, 487f
  • Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)458, 459b, 460
  • international agents of development76, 89–98
    • and armed groups88
  • International Association for the Study of Forced Migration (IASFM)458
  • International Commission of State Sovereignty239b
  • International Conference on Population (Mexico City, 1984)199
  • International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo, 1994)199, 464
  • International Court of Justice90
  • International Criminal Court (ICC)233, 235b, 537
  • international criminal justice mechanisms235b
  • International Criminal Tribunals235b
  • international debt10
  • international division of labour571b, 572
  • International Food Policy Research Institute113
  • International Labour Organisationsee ILO
  • international law535, 537
  • International Monetary Fundsee IMF
  • international non-government organisationssee INGOs
  • International Organisation for Migration (IOM)457, 460
  • international political dimension, of colonial rule297–8, 308, 312–13
  • international poverty line28, 44
  • Internet484, 496
    • gender gap497
  • Internet of Things (IoT)494, 594b
  • intersectionality395
  • interventionism
    • climate change559
  • IPC (Integrated Food Security Phase Classification)108–9, 109t, 117, 121
  • IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)3–4, 22b, 219, 222, 544, 547, 548, 555
  • Iran
    • COVID-19385b
    • migration467
    • Syrian conflict237
    • women’s rights85
    • Yemen conflict237
  • Iraq
    • border walls465
    • displaced people15
    • fertility levels191
    • medical humanitarianism444
    • Syrian conflict243
    • terrorist groups in535
  • Ireland
  • irrigation schemes209, 213
  • ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant)237, 243, 535, 540
  • ISIS (Islamic State in Syria)335
  • Islam
    • and ancient African kingdoms263–4
    • and democratisation382
    • and education147
    • religion and society263
    • Trump’s election campaign537–8
  • Islamophobia469
  • isomorphic mimicry83b
  • Israel465, 533
  • IT (information technology)see digital technologies
  • Italy
    • five-star movement595b
    • social capital85
  • Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire)239, 304, 374

J

  • Jackson, P.333
  • Jackson, T.548, 559
  • Jacobs, Bel591b
  • Jamaica279, 280f
  • jan sunwai (public hearing, India)580–1, 580f
  • Japan277
    • biodiversity threats215b
    • colonialism80
    • COVID-19385b
    • developmental state80
    • and the ‘Golden Years’ (1950s and 1960s)321
    • nationalism522
    • nation state524
    • UN contributions90
    • under-five mortality126, 127
    • World Bank91
  • Jayaraj, D.149
  • Jebb, Eglantyne107
  • Jeffrey, Craig162b
  • Jesudason, J.366
  • Jodha, N. S.35
  • Johnson, Andrew569
  • Johnson, Chalmers80, 354
  • Johnson, H.79
  • Johnson, O.445
  • Johnson, R. W.284
  • Jones, R.465
  • Jonsson, J.174–5
  • Jordan243, 467, 600
  • Jua, N.174
  • Jubilee Debt Campaign333
  • p. 619Judaism147, 263
  • Juma, C.424
  • ‘June Days’ movement576
  • justice20

K

  • Kabeer, N.30, 35
  • Kabila, Laurent313b
  • Kagame, Paul80, 313b, 365, 366f
  • Kaldor, Mary236, 589, 589b
  • Kalita, D.112b
  • Kaplan, Robert, The Revenge of Geography532b
  • Karegeya, Patrick366f
  • Kasfir, N.376
  • Katznelson, Ira502
  • Kazakhstan93
  • Keck, M. E.218b
  • Keegan, John226, 227, 228
  • Kenneth, Rubangakene593b
  • Kenny, C.67
  • Kenya
    • appropriate technology486
    • Big Data and malaria491
    • climate change551b
    • developmental state80
    • employment167f
    • independence310b
    • Internet of Things494
    • interventionism63
    • Mau Mau rebellion288
    • mobile money (M-Pesa)490, 512
    • Sophie Bot492
  • Kerala81, 183, 198, 348, 600
  • Keynes, Maynard566, 568, 569
  • Keynesian view of capitalist development64
  • Kikandwa Environmental Association551–2
  • Kim, Jim Yong14
  • Kingsolver, Barbara, The Poisonwood Bible371b, 372
  • kinship, and the Mundurucu ‘Indians’253–5, 256
  • Kiribati548f
  • Kirk, D.189b
  • Kissinger, Henry11
  • Kitching, G.58, 59, 71, 289
  • Koh, L. P.215b
  • Kony, Joseph234, 235b
  • Korten, David3, 45, 70–1
  • Kosovo90, 234, 240, 444
  • Kouchner, Bernard444
  • Krause, K.231
  • Krishna, A.67
  • Krueger, A. B.212
  • Krushchev, Nikita342
  • Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK)378
  • Kyoto Protocol545, 546, 547
  • Kyrgyzstan93

L

  • labour
    • and democratisation381
  • labour market
    • casualisation177
    • intensification176
  • labour productivity176, 177b, 178–9
    • and capitalist growth57, 58b
  • Lambert, R.573
  • land
    • alienation178
    • and colonialism287
    • reforms, autocratic regimes385b
  • landed classes, and colonial rule301b
  • Landes, David, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations573
  • land mines234
  • Laos347
  • Latin America
    • Aztec civilisation258b
    • biodiversity threats215b
    • Buen Vivir (good living)72, 560
    • China’s economic rise334, 334f
    • and development reversals328, 329
    • economic activity rates171t, 171
    • economic growth15
    • education152
    • employment in170t
    • Family Planning 2020 Initiative204t
    • future prospects586b
    • global financial crisis334
    • Global Hunger Index113f
    • globalisation11, 12
    • Green Revolution110
    • health and economic growth434
    • informal sector work173b
    • land reforms385b
    • life expectancy190f
    • population density195b
    • population trends194f
    • primary commodity production214
    • socialist factions in342
    • total fertility rate191f
  • Latour, Bruno422, 429–30, 601, 603, 604
  • Law, John422
  • LDCs (less developed countries), protectionism and pro-market forces in63
  • leadership, alternative development and post-development73
  • League of Nations, colonial mandates277
  • Learning for All156–7
  • Lebanon243, 467, 600
  • Lee, J.407b
  • Lee Kwan Yew380
  • Lefebvre, H.556
  • Leftwich, Adrian332, 336, 337, 381
  • legitimacy
    • armed groups88
    • authoritarian populism575
    • environmental negotiations210b
    • governance reforms332t
    • states78
    • war and armed conflicts235
  • legitimation, and global capitalism52b
  • Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich
    • and the Bolshevik revolution342, 343
    • democratic centralism379, 379b
    • Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism276–7
    • and the NEP (New Economic Policy)344
  • Lenzen, M.215b
  • Leonardi, R.85
  • Le Pen, Marine565
  • Levasseur, Emile466–7
  • Levy, B.83
  • Lewin, K.154
  • Lewis, Bernard528, 530, 539
  • Li, T. M.68
  • liberal capitalism5, 11, 20–1, 217, 602
  • liberal democracy364t, 365b, 384, 390–1
    • and capitalist industrialisation59
    • and ‘good governance’390
  • p. 620liberalism, embedded569
  • liberal peace239–40, 241, 243
  • Liberia
    • child soldiers234
    • water supplies and sanitation facilities132t
  • Libya
    • border dispute with Chad90
    • state building242
  • LICs (low-income countries), extreme poverty44
  • life expectancy127b, 127–9, 142, 188–9, 190f
    • epidemiological transition theory437
    • non-communicable diseases439
    • sub-Saharan Africa194b
  • Limits to Growth (Meadows et al.)209
  • Limongi, F.384, 389
  • Linz, J.364
  • Lipton, Michael505
  • List, Friedrich64
  • literacy
    • missionaries147
    • and mortality rates132, 133f
    • trends15
  • ‘little d development’52–3, 53b
  • lived experience30b
    • of poverty30
  • livelihoods115b, 168, 173
    • hunger and famine115
  • living standards
    • multidimensional poverty33t, 34f
    • and population growth188, 197
  • LLDCs (least-developed countries), in the 1980s328
  • local knowledge, and climate change555b
  • London School of Economics14b
  • lone mothers, and work402
  • López-Uribe, María del586, 586b
  • Lord’s Resistance Army234, 235b
  • loss and damage impacts of climate change547, 547b, 561
  • loss impacts of climate change547b
  • Louridas, P.423
  • Lövbrand, E.223
  • Luckham, R.243
  • Lumumba, Patrice371b
  • Lutheran World Federation85
  • Lutz, W.194b, 195
  • lymphatic filariasis138

M