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(p. 377) 24. Conclusions and Outlook: The Future of Democratization 

(p. 377) 24. Conclusions and Outlook: The Future of Democratization
(p. 377) 24. Conclusions and Outlook: The Future of Democratization

Christian W. Haerpfer

, Patrick Bernhagen

, Ronald F. Inglehart

, and Christian Welzel

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date: 14 May 2021

This volume has demonstrated how societies struggle to become and remain democratic. It has shown that democracy is not complete without the rule of law and that democracy does not include every political, social or economic condition that people consider desirable. It has highlighted the causal and contextual factors that affect the process of democratization and the consolidation of new democracies, including the international environment, the economy, business elites, mass beliefs, gender, social capital, social movements and transnational advocacy networks, voter behaviour, political parties, electoral systems, party systems, forms of government, and the media. This concluding chapter discusses a series of facilitating and impeding factors of democratization, including tactical, strategic, and developmental factors. It also considers factors shaping shallow democratization as well as factors shaping deep democratization. Finally, it identifies a number of challenges on the democratic agenda.

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