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(p. 309) 20. Post-Communist Europe and Post-Soviet Russia 

(p. 309) 20. Post-Communist Europe and Post-Soviet Russia
(p. 309) 20. Post-Communist Europe and Post-Soviet Russia

Christian W. Haerpfer

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date: 14 May 2021

This chapter examines the democratic revolutions that occurred in post-communist Europe and post-Soviet Eurasia during the period 1989–2008. It first considers the beginning of the decline of communism and the failed attempts to reform communist one-party states from 1970 to 1988 as stage one of democratization. It then discusses the end of communist regimes as the second stage of democratization — between 1989 and 1991. It also looks at stage three of the democratization process, which focuses on the creation of new democracies. The chapter divides the dynamics of post-communist democratization into three separate paths of development: the path towards consolidated and liberal democracy, the path towards partial and electoral democracy, and the path towards illiberal autocracy. It concludes with an assessment of the main drivers of successful democratization in post-communist Europe.

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