- Simon Bulmer, Simon BulmerProfessor of Politics, University of Sheffield
- Owen Parker, Owen ParkerLecturer in European Politics, University of Sheffield
- Ian Bache, Ian BacheProfessor of Politics, University of Sheffield
- Stephen GeorgeStephen GeorgeEmeritus Professor of Politics, University of Sheffield
- and Charlotte BurnsCharlotte BurnsProfessor, University of Sheffield
This chapter focuses on two European Union (EU) institutions that are principally composed of government representatives: the European Council and the Council of the EU. By virtue of their composition of government representatives (government heads, ministers, and civil servants), both the European Council and the Council of the EU remain part of a hierarchy of EU institutions. The chapter first provides an overview of definitions and distinctions, before discussing the intergovernmentalism of the European Council and how the Council of the European Union helped increase the supranationalism of the EU. It also considers the role of the Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER) and various preparatory committees.