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(p. 15) Part I Enduring Issues of Strategy 

(p. 15) Part I Enduring Issues of Strategy

John Baylis

, James J. Wirtz

, and Colin S. Gray

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date: 15 August 2020

This chapter traces the history of the practice of strategy from Antiquity to Napoleon Bonaparte. It first considers various definitions of strategy before discussing episodes of European history since Antiquity for which historians claim to have found evidence of the practice of strategy. While focusing only on Europe, the chapter covers case studies over nearly 2,500 years, ranging from the wars of Ancient Greece, of the Romans to medieval warfare, the warfare of Philip II of Spain, Louis XIV of France, Frederick II of Prussia, the French Revolutionaries, and Napoleon. It also considers two sets of incremental changes that ultimately led to the transformation of warfare and of strategy: the growth, centralization, and diversifiation of the structure of European states; and technological innovation.

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