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(p. 380) 17. Europe in the Middle East 

(p. 380) 17. Europe in the Middle East
Chapter:
(p. 380) 17. Europe in the Middle East
Author(s):

Rosemary Hollis

DOI:
10.1093/hepl/9780198708742.003.0018
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date: 28 November 2020

This chapter examines the evolution of European approaches to the Middle East. Realism would downplay the relevance of institutions such as the European Union and the limits to cooperation. Yet medium powers such as Europe can shape outcomes in international relations and there are Middle Eastern states that have looked to Europe to supply this balancing effect. The chapter discusses four discernible phases in the story of European involvement in the Middle East in the last hundred years. The first is the era of European imperialism in the Middle East; the second coincides with the Cold War, which witnessed the rivalry between the Western powers for commercial gain; the third period saw the EU member states set about devising a common foreign and security policy toward their neighbours in the Mediterranean; and the fourth covers the Arab Spring and the refugee crisis.

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