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Book

Edited by Simon Bulmer and Christian Lequesne

The Member States of the European Union combines a study of individual member states with an examination of the broader process of Europeanization. Examining both sides of this crucial relationship, this text provides a useful guide to EU member state relations. This second edition has been updated to take in the latest round of EU enlargement and includes chapters on eight member states from different geographical regions and dates of accession. These are followed by seven thematic chapters on the Europeanization of structures, actors, and processes within the EU 27.

Chapter

Simon Bulmer and Christian Lequesne

This chapter provides an overview of the European Union and its member states. It first explains why the member states matter in the EU before discussing the role of member states in the EU, with particular emphasis on three approaches to understanding member state-EU relations: intergovernmentalism, institutionalism, and governance approaches. It then examines the Europeanization of the member states as well as the domestic politics approach, which claims that it is impossible to understand the EU without considering domestic politics. It concludes by presenting the logic and structure of this volume: how the relationship between the EU and its member states will be portrayed in the chapters that follow.

Chapter

Simon Bulmer and Christian Lequesne

This chapter provides an overview of the European Union and its member states. It first explains why the member states matter in the EU before discussing the role of member states in the EU, with particular emphasis on three approaches to understanding member state–EU relations: intergovernmentalism, institutionalism, and governance approaches. It then examines the Europeanization of the member states as well as the revival of domestic politics approaches, which claim that it is impossible to understand the EU in light of its politicization during the 2010s. It concludes by presenting the logic and structure of this volume: how the relationship between the EU and its member states will be portrayed in the chapters that follow.

Book

Edited by Simon Bulmer and Christian Lequesne

The Member States of the European Union combines a study of individual member states with an examination of the broader process of Europeanization. Examining both sides of this crucial relationship, this text provides a useful guide to EU member state relations. This third edition has been updated to summer 2019 and includes chapters on eight member states from different geographical regions and dates of accession. These are followed by seven thematic chapters on the Europeanization of structures, actors, and processes within the pre-Brexit EU 28. The Member States of the European Union helps understanding the influence of Member States in the EU but also the impact the EU has on the domestic institutions, politics, and policies of each member state.

Chapter

Christopher Bickerton

This chapter explores the role of member states in European integration. It first looks at the idea of member statehood, exploring its ambiguities and arguing for a more sophisticated understanding of what it means to be a ‘member state’ of the EU. The chapter considers in detail the role played by member states in the EU, highlighting in particular the centrality of member state governments and their power to EU policy-making and its institutions. At the same time it notes the relative absence of member state publics. The chapter ends with a reflection on whether there is a return of the nation-state, with its associated trends of nationalism and inter-state rivalry.

Chapter

Simon Bulmer and Christian Lequesne

This chapter focuses on the current applicant states and examines the ways in which the Europeanization literature can be applied to candidates. It first considers the impact of enlargement upon the functioning of the European Union before discussing the attractiveness of the EU for the European states. It then assesses the impact of the EU on countries applying for membership and the implications of future enlargements for the role of member states within the EU institutions. It also explains how new enlargements will affect the role of institutional and policy differentiation in the EU and concludes with an analysis of the influence of the EU on countries that are Europeanized but not member states.

Chapter

Brigid Laffan

This chapter focuses on the member states of the European Union. It first considers six factors that determine how a state engages with the EU: the date of entry, size, wealth, state structure, economic ideology, and integration preference. It then examines how member states behave in the EU's institutions and seek to influence the outcome of negotiations in Brussels. It also discusses the informal and formal activities of the member states before concluding with an overview of the insights offered by theory in analysing the relationship between the EU and its member states. The chapter clarifies some key concepts and terms such as Europeanization, acquis communautaire, and flexible integration, and explains how the EU's Intergovernmental Conferences work.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on the expansion of the European Union and the widening of Europe. Enlargement is often seen as the EU's most successful foreign policy. It has extended prosperity, stability, and good governance to neighbouring countries by means of its membership criteria. However, enlargement is much more than foreign policy: it is the process whereby the external becomes internal. It is about how non-member countries become members, and shape the development of the EU itself. The chapter first compares widening and deepening before discussing enlargement as soft power. It then explains how the EU has expanded and why countries want to join. It also looks at prospective member states: the Balkan countries, Turkey, Norway, Switzerland, and Iceland. Finally, it examines the European Neighbourhood Policy.

Chapter

This chapter examines the impact of Europeanization upon the national economies of European Union member states. It considers how successful the EU has been in promoting its goal of building a single European economy out of the diverse national economies of its member states; how much convergence has occurred among EU member states, and how much divergence remains; and what impact the economic crisis beginning in 2008 has had on the EU and its member states. To answer these questions, the chapter traces the development of Europe’s national economies from the post-war period until today. It also analyses the impact of globalization and Europeanization on post-war varieties of capitalism before concluding with reflections on future patterns of political economic development in the EU in light of the economic crisis.

Chapter

This chapter examines the history of the United Kingdom’s relationship with the European integration process. Britain’s relations with the European Union is characterized by partial Europeanization. The British ruling elite, especially the civil service, has been Europeanized. However, the political parties have been beset by internal divisions on European integration, while the British public has not been supportive of integration. The chapter first provides an overview of the UK’s European diplomacy before discussing the impact of Europeanization on British politics. It then considers the differing levels of accommodation with European integration and the changes that have accompanied the coming to power in 2010 of the Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition after a lengthy period of Labour rule (1997–2010). The chapter concludes by comparing the UK’s experience with those of fellow member states Ireland and Denmark.

Chapter

This chapter examines the different aspects of Spain’s adaptation to the European Union, and more specifically how Europe became a source of benefits and modernization for the country. Spain is the only country among all those which have joined the EU after 1958 whose political parties and citizenry were in full support of the issue. Europeanization has affected most policy areas, particularly economic and social policies, in response to EU pressures during the financial crisis. The chapter first considers the pattern of Spain’s relations with the EU before discussing the overall assessment of its EU membership among public opinion and political parties. It then analyses the impact of EU membership on Spain’s political institutions and governance, judicial politics, and policy adaptation in areas such as the Common Agricultural Policy and environmental policy. The chapter concludes by comparing Spain’s experience with those of other member states.

Book

Ian Bache, Simon Bulmer, Stephen George, and Owen Parker

Politics in the European Union examines the theory, history, institutions, and policies of the European Union. The EU is a unique, complex, and ever-changing political entity which continues to shape both international politics and the politics of its individual member states. The text provides a clear analysis of the organization and presents a well-rounded introduction to the subject. Complete and detailed in its coverage, with a consolidated and updated history section, this text weaves together material on key contemporary concerns including the eurozone crisis and the implementation of the Treaty of Lisbon with a thorough consideration of the workings and remit of the EU.

Chapter

This chapter examines the European Union’s main enlargement rounds. The European Community (EC)/EU started with six member states, but has grown through successive enlargements. The first enlargement occurred in 1973 when Britain, Denmark, and Ireland were admitted as members. The second (1981) and third (1986) enlargements are often treated as a single ‘Southern enlargement’. The fourth enlargement took place in 1995, which admitted Austria, Finland, and Sweden. The fifth and sixth enlargements, in 2004 and 2007, are known as the ‘Eastern enlargement’. The seventh enlargement saw the admittance of Croatia in 2013. The chapter describes what happened during each round and considers the effect on the EC/EU. It also reviews academic explanations of why the various applications for membership were made, and why they were accepted by the EC/EU. Finally, it looks at the controversial case of Turkey, taking into account the notion of ‘enlargement fatigue’.

Chapter

This chapter examines the dynamics of Europeanization of interest groups and social movements in European Union member states. European integration has influenced interest groups and social movements since the beginning of the process in the 1950s. However, transformation has been induced by other elements such as globalization or the transformation of the state. Drawing on findings from empirical studies, this chapter analyses the change in interests, strategies, and internal organizational structures of interest groups and social movements, both in the ‘old’ and ‘new’ member states. It shows that the Europeanization of interest groups and social movements is highly differentiated, according to public policy areas, group types, and national origins.

Chapter

Tanja A. Börzel and Diana Panke

This chapter examines the concept of Europeanization and why it has become prominent in research on the European Union and its member states. It first explains what Europeanization means before discussing the main approaches used in studying Europeanization. It then reviews the state of the art with particular reference to ‘top-down’ Europeanization (how the EU affects states) and illustrates the theoretical arguments with empirical examples. It also considers ‘bottom-up’ Europeanization (how states can influence the EU), offers some theoretical explanations for the empirical patterns observed, and provides an overview of research that explores the relationship between bottom-up and top-down Europeanization. Finally, it reflects on the future of Europeanization research and suggests that Europeanization will continue to be an important field of EU research for the foreseeable future.

Chapter

This chapter examines the impact of Europeanization on member state institutions. Membership in the European Union imposes a variety of constraints and burdens on countries, but it also affords new opportunities and makes available new resources. Integration has reinforced the decline of national legislatures, while national courts at all levels have assumed new functions and become part of a wider Community of law. At the same, the precise effects of the EU have varied cross-nationally as the demands of membership have interacted with differing constitutional arrangements, legal traditions, and political cultures. Moreover, national institutions such as governments, parliaments, and courts have left their mark on the EU and determine to a large extent the capacities of the Union as a system. The chapter considers how membership of the EU has affected national governments, national parliaments, and national courts.

Chapter

Dimitris Papadimitriou and David Phinnemore

This chapter examines the Europeanization effects associated with Romania’s effort to begin and, later, complete its accession negotiations with the European Union. The road to EU membership in 2007 was a long and hard one for Romania. While public and political opinion remained solidly in favour of integration, and ultimately membership, institutional fluidity, poor administrative capacity, political factionalism, and corruption posed significant challenges to processes of domestic adaptation. The chapter first provides an overview of the changing pattern of Romania’s relationship with the EU before discussing some of the early evidence of the impact of EU membership on Romanian public opinion, party politics, and public policy. It also looks at important factors that have affected both the ‘production’ and ‘reception’ of the Europeanization pressures associated with the EU’s most recent enlargement. Finally, it compares Romania’s EU membership experience with those of other member states, particularly Poland and Bulgaria.

Chapter

Simon Bulmer and Claudio M. Radaelli

This chapter examines the impact of Europeanization upon the public policy functions of European Union member states. It first explains why Europeanization of policy is a hot topic before describing types of Europeanization and characteristic patterns of governance in the EU. It then discusses the dynamics of Europeanization, focusing on the processes involved and the effects produced, and relates these processes and effects to categories of policy in order to map the Europeanization of public policy. It also analyses research considerations with respect to Europeanization and concludes with an assessment of the EU enlargement process as well as suggestions for conducting empirical studies to investigate the EU’s impact on member states.

Chapter

This chapter examines the ways in which the European Union and the political parties of member states interact and cause change. It considers various types of change, causal mechanisms, and the differences between parties and the EU in both older and newer member states. The chapter first provides an overview of the different partisan actors that operate in the multi-level system of domestic and EU politics before discussing the manner in which domestic political parties can be said to have ‘Europeanized’. It then shows how parties in older and newer member states differ and concludes with an assessment of the wider effects of Europeanization on domestic politics in general and party politics in particular. The chapter suggests that the EU’s influence, in both east and west, may be more significant in the long run in terms of its indirect impact on patterns of party competition.

Chapter

Simon Bulmer and Christian Lequesne

This chapter examines recurrent themes in the experiences of the countries discussed earlier in terms of European Union membership. It first considers the contribution of Europeanization as an analytical tool for understanding EU member state relations on a country-by-country basis before discussing emergent themes and issues. In particular, it assesses the significance of timing of accession for the member states’ Europeanization experience, showing how timing has often interacted with a geographical focus to each enlargement wave. It also asks whether the Europeanization experience is different for large states rather than small states, or whether the embeddedness of member states’ political systems plays a role. The chapter concludes by identifying different impacts of Europeanization along the dimensions of politics, polity, and policy.