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Chapter

Cover Contemporary Terrorism Studies

10. When Do Individuals Radicalize?  

Rik Coolsaet

This chapter examines issues related to the radicalization of individuals. It explores the advent of terrorism studies. Early scholars laid the foundations for current thinking on terrorism. The chapter defines radicalization as the process wherein participants are drawn into a protest with the likelihood of a terrorist act taking place. The classic definition of radicalization has been much contested from its very beginning. The 9/11 attacks of Al-Qaeda gave terrorism studies a renewed boost. The chapter looks into various models which depict the steps of radicalization. It also looks at the factors which make an individual become a terrorist: conductive environment, opportunity, local mobilization hubs, and ideology. In most cases, the process of socialization into extremism and terrorism transpires gradually.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Terrorism Studies

19. Is Terrorism Effective?  

Diego Muro

This chapter examines the effectiveness of terrorism in delivering tactical returns. It shows how terrorism is largely ineffective in realising strategic goals. Political goals vary and include secession, overthrowing capitalism, and expelling an occupying force. Additionally, the tactical use of terrorism brings cohesion to a group's organization, ideology, goals, and constituencies. There is no consensus among scholars with regards to the political returns of terrorism. This is due to the methodological problems inherent in the controversy. The chapter then explores the advantages and disadvantages of using coercive intimidation to pursue political conclusions. It includes future studies that may be more inclusive, methodical, and productive.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Terrorism Studies

26. Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism  

Daniel Koehler

This chapter presents an overview of how to prevent and counter violent extremism programmes (P/CVE). It highlights issues on evaluation and quality standards, staff training, gender-specific P/CVE, evidence-based methods, and solid theories of change. The chapter differentiates Eastern and Western P/CVE. It shows how ideological discourse was dominant in the West, while civil society partners and non-ideological components became the main area of consideration in the East. P/CVE became the cornerstone of numerous counterterrorism strategies, but it still needs to be flexible and adaptable to needs. The chapter also recognises how prisons can turn into hotbeds of violent radicalization, and targeted assassinations of terrorists can turn them into martyrs.