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Book

Cover Poverty and Development

Edited by Tim Allen and Alan Thomas

Poverty & Development in the 21st Century provides an updated, interdisciplinary overview of one of the world's most complex and pressing social problems. The book analyses and assesses key questions faced by practitioners and policy makers, ranging from what potential solutions to world poverty are open to us to what form development should take and whether it is compatible with environmental sustainability. This third edition considers the complex causes of global poverty and inequality, introducing major development issues that include hunger, disease, the threat of authoritarian populism, the refugee crisis, and environmental degradation. Three new chapters illustrate the impact of climate, refugee and health crises on development by drawing on accounts of lived experience to explore the real-world implications of theory.

Chapter

Cover Poverty and Development

15. The Era of Development—A Short History  

Tom Hewitt

This chapter is organized around the idea of development: what it has meant to whom and why. The colonial period at its end was the beginning of what has been termed the era of development and was the beginning of an unprecedented internationalization and the emergence of a global economy. By the end of the 1990s, there were few parts of the world left untouched by the process of globalization which occurred since World War II. The first two decades of the twenty-first century have witnessed splintering and fragmentation and what some would argue to be signs of the end of the development era. Meanwhile, 'intentional development' at global level has broadened to include goals to deal with almost all aspects of what some call 'global crisis'. Analysts of development have moved to examining politics, power, and institutions in order to understand the growing complexity of development.

Chapter

Cover Poverty and Development

2. Poverty and Inequality  

Naila Kabeer and Alan Thomas

This chapter examines a range of different ways of determining whether or not someone is 'poor' in an absolute sense, before discussing poverty in relative and cultural terms and the related idea of inequality. Income poverty has many limitations as a measure of poverty. Other ways of conceiving and measuring the poverty of individuals include: taking gender and other inequalities into account within and between households; relative poverty or social exclusion; poverty as a deprivation of capabilities; and incorporating multiple dimensions of deprivation. Poverty is also applied to whole communities, regions, or countries. Two main contrasting ways of measuring poverty at these levels are gross national income (GNI) per capita and the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). Globally, patterns of poverty and inequality are changing so that the majority of poor people no longer live in poor countries as measured by GNI per capita. Global poverty also has to be considered alongside social disintegration and environmental destruction as interrelated issues and parts of a 'global crisis'.