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Chapter

Cover Foreign Policy

13. Duties beyond borders  

Michael Barnett

This chapter examines the concept of duties beyond borders and its implications for the practice of foreign policy. More specifically, it considers why states proclaim duties to those beyond their borders as well as the apparent expansion of those duties over the last two decades. After explaining what is meant by duties beyond borders and how it relates to the concepts of sovereignty and cosmopolitanism, the chapter explores how realist, liberal, constructivist, and decision-making theories account for the existence and expansion of these duties. It also describes why states failed to halt the genocide in Rwanda in 1994 and intervened in Libya in 2011, but not in Syria. It also analyses the growing tension between a foreign policy defined by realpolitik and a foreign policy that is increasingly affected and defined by intensifying interdependence in a range of issues and transnational connections between peoples.

Chapter

Cover International Relations of the Middle East

4. The Middle East Since the Cold War: Movement without Progress  

Bahgat Korany

This chapter focuses on the Middle East during the post-Cold-War era. It introduces some the key themes that have come to dominate contemporary international relations of the Middle East: oil; new and old conflicts; the impacts of globalization; and religio-politics. In considering the major security patterns and trends in the Middle East, one finds a number of enduring issues, such as the Arab–Israeli conflict and border disputes. At the same time, one can see elements of change, both within these conflicts and with the emergence of recent threats, such as Iranian nuclearization, with profound consequences for regional alliance structures. As old and new security issues mingle in the geopolitical order, events of the past few years reflect a region dominated by conflict clusters. It is no surprise then that the Middle East remains a highly militarized region.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Terrorism Studies

25. Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism, and Technology  

Peter Lehr

This chapter looks at the role of technology in the battle against terrorism. Technology was quickly identified as such a potential ‘silver bullet’ following the 9/11 event. This showed that border controls alone are insufficient to prevent terrorist incidents. Technology was able to help with biometrics, data mining, and acquisition to identify terrorists posing as regular citizens. While technology is undeniably useful, it is not fool proof. The chapter uses facial recognition software to illustrate issues with technology. This type of software often comes up with false positives and biases against minority groups. The chapter also raises issues of privacy and civil liberties while referencing the Pegasus spyware scandal as an example.