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Cover Comparative Politics

12. Multilevel governance  

Liesbet Hooghe, Gary Marks, and Arjan H. Schakel

This chapter examines multilevel governance, the dispersion of authority to jurisdictions within and beyond national states. It summarizes the tremendous growth of multilevel governance since the Second World War, and reviews the major theories that seek to explain this. Whereas economists and public policy analysts explain multilevel governance as a functionalist adaptation to the provision of public goods, sociologists and political scientists focus on the effects of territorial identity and distributional conflict. These approaches complement each other, and today researchers draw on them to explain variation over time and across space. The chapter concludes by discussing three topics that have been affected by multilevel governance: democratic representation, ethno-territorial conflict, and social policy.

Chapter

Cover Comparative Politics

11. Multilevel Governance  

Liesbet Hooghe, Gary Marks, and Arjan H. Schakel

This chapter examines multilevel governance, the dispersion of authority to jurisdictions within and beyond national states. It summarizes the tremendous growth of multilevel governance since World War II, and reviews the major theories that seek to explain this. Whereas economists and public policy analysts explain multilevel governance as a functionalist adaptation to the provision of public goods, sociologists and political scientists focus on the effects of territorial identity and distributional conflict. These approaches complement each other, and today researchers draw on them to explain variation over time and across space. The chapter concludes by discussing three topics that have been affected by multilevel governance: democratic representation, ethno-territorial conflict, and social policy.

Chapter

Cover Political Thinkers

30. Oakeshott  

David Boucher

This chapter examines Michael Oakeshott's political thought, beginning with a discussion of his scepticism and its relation to the background theory of British idealism that informs all aspects of his philosophy. It then considers Oakeshott's belief that philosophy is the uncovering and questioning of the postulates upon which all our forms of understanding rest. Oakeshott has been characterized as a conservative, a liberal, and an ideologist, but this chapter argues that he was neither conservative nor liberal in any party-political sense. It goes on to analyse Oakeshott's views on the rationalist in politics, civil association and the rule of law, and politics and law as well as his characterization of the modern European state. The chapter concludes by assessing the importance Oakeshott attached to myth and legend in the self-consciousness of a society.

Chapter

Cover Rethinking Political Thinkers

27. Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi  

James Casas Klausen

This chapter examines the development of Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi’s theory and practice of non-violent resistance with respect to British imperialism in Asia and Africa. It also covers how Gandhi projected himself and conducted campaigns of resistance. Gandhi’s book Hind Swaraj presented Indian self-rule as personal/individual and political/collective and introduced the theory behind non-violent resistance. Gandhi’s autobiography reassessed his early activism, showing why anti-racist criticisms are not unfounded and elaborated his dilemmas in reconciling non-violent theory and practice in nationwide political campaigns. The chapter analyses the Salt Satyagraha to show how Gandhi attempted to resolve the tensions of non-violent resistance on a mass scale, which served as a model for non-violent protests against white supremacy and dictatorship.