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Chapter

Cover Contemporary Security Studies

15. Regime Security  

Andreas Krieg

This chapter examines the nature of regime security in the weak states in the developing world in contrast to public or state security in the developed world. The chapter shows that the insecurities that confront regimes in the developing world mostly emanate from internal rather than external threats and are linked to the inability or unwillingness of these regimes to provide security inclusively as a public good to local communities. In order to understand the regime insecurity loop in the developing world, the chapter commences by introducing the difference between public and regime security. It continues by defining the major threats to regime security before exemplifying how regimes in the developing world are trying to manage these threats through accommodation and coercion. The regime insecurity loop will be illustrated on the basis of the Assad regime in Syria. The chapter concludes by outlining the prospects of regime security in the developing world amid an increased transnationalization of security affairs.

Chapter

Cover International Relations of the Middle East

9. Regionalism and Alliances in the Middle East  

Louise Fawcett

This chapter describes the changing dynamics of regionalism and alliance-making in the Middle East, processes that are closely related to and reflect states' foreign and domestic policy choices. The Middle East is not a region without regionalism at the societal or interstate level. There have been multiple forces for cooperation, particularly in the Arab world, based upon common identity, interests and beliefs; multiple alliances that intersect the Arab and non-Arab world; and evidence of cooperation in both broader and narrower regional settings like the Gulf. Global as well as regional trends and influences also push the Middle East into new arenas of cooperation. However, outcomes are mixed: an array of factors including regime insecurity, local rivalries, and external influence inhibit attempts at regional cooperation. Events since the Arab Spring have presented opportunities but also further challenges for Arab regional institutions as new divides and regional alignments emerge.