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Chapter

Cover International Relations Theories

6. The English School  

Tim Dunne

This chapter examines the main assumptions of the English school, the principal alternative to mainstream North American theorizations of International Relations. It first provides an overview of what the English school is and how it emerged before discussing its methodology as well as its master-concept of international society. It then considers three concepts that are the primary theoretical contribution of the English school: the social order established by states and embodied in the activities of practitioners must be understood alongside the dynamics of the international system and world society. The chapter proceeds by exploring the English school’s position on the issue of human rights and its implications for justice in international relations.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights

Human Rights in International Law  

Rhona K. M. Smith

This chapter focuses on human rights within international law. It discusses the principal monitoring systems that ensured states complied with their international human rights treaty obligations. Some human rights agreements involved the abolition of slavery, humanitarian law, and labour rights. The chapter then lists treaties, customary international law, and soft law as the sources of international human rights law. States generally indicate their acceptance of international human rights law by agreeing to treaties, but they could avoid the full impact of legal obligations through reservations, derogations, and declarations. Thus, the existing mechanisms for monitoring human rights have a light touch that encouraged states to comply with treaties through constructive dialogue instead of any court processes.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights: Politics and Practice

10. Human Rights and Religion  

Roja Fazaeli

This chapter examines the ways in which theoretical and practical relationships between religion and human rights are constructed and understood. It begins with a historical background on the relationship between religion and human rights, focusing on religious traditions from which human rights discourses have inherited or rejected a number of ideas; one is the tradition of natural rights, which was debated throughout the Enlightenment. It then considers the formation of the international human rights system, along with contemporary concerns regarding religion and human rights such as the treatment of women, religious expression and rights claims in multicultural contexts, and the significance of religious symbols. It also discusses questions of religious authority and concludes with a review of two European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) cases that demonstrate growing edges for questions of human rights and religion: the Lautsi case and the Şahin case.