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Cover Human Rights

Treaties, Monitoring, and Enforcement  

Emily Hencken Ritter

This chapter explores the monitoring and enforcement of treaties, which is the foundation of international human rights law. The international nature of human rights treaties (HRT) makes it difficult to monitor and enforce states' compliance with treaty obligations. The chapter looks at how international organizations, domestic institutions, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and civilians monitor state compliance and invoke enforcement when necessary. It then explains the difficulty of constraining a state with the power to harm while demonstrating the power of collective action to change government practices. The process of compliance with international law involves standard setting, state compliance behaviour, monitoring, and enforcement. The chapter also highlights the difference between de jure and de facto rights protections. It looks into the social movements, such as the Black Lives Matter Movement, monitoring and enforcing state accountability to international HRT obligations.


Cover Human Rights: Politics and Practice

5. Human Rights in Comparative Politics  

Sonia Cardenas

This chapter examines the importance of comparative politics for understanding human rights practices. Comparative politics has advanced our knowledge of why states sometimes violate internationally recognized human rights. Both domestic incentives and exclusionary ideologies increase the likelihood of rights violations. On the other hand, comparative politics has attempted to explain human rights protection, showing how domestic structures (both societal groups and state institutions) can influence reform efforts. This chapter first consider alternative logics of comparison, including the merits of comparing a small versus a large number of cases and human rights within or across regions. It then explores the leading domestic-level explanations for why human rights violations occur. It also describes the use of domestic–international linkages to explain otherwise perplexing human rights outcomes. Finally, it analyses the ways in which, in the context of globalization, comparative politics shapes human rights practices.


Cover The Globalization of World Politics

33. Humanitarian intervention in world politics  

Alex J. Bellamy and Nicholas J. Wheeler

This chapter examines the role of humanitarian intervention in world politics. It considers how we should resolve tensions when valued principles such as order, sovereignty, and self-determination come into conflict with human rights; and how international thought and practice has evolved with respect to humanitarian intervention. The chapter discusses the case for and against humanitarian intervention and looks at humanitarian activism during the 1990s. It also analyses the responsibility to protect principle and the use of force to achieve its protection goals in Libya in 2011. Two case studies are presented in this chapter. The first one looks at Myanmar and barriers to intervention. The second one centres on the role of Middle Eastern governments in Operation Unified Protector which took place in 2011 in Libya.