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Marlies Glasius and Doutje Lettinga

This chapter examines the relationship between global civil society (GCS), defined as ‘people organizing to influence their world’, and the normative ideal of a ‘global rule-bound society’. It first explains the concept of GCS before discussing some of the GCS actors involved in human rights issues, with a particular focus on their background, methods, and influence. It then decribes three kinds of activities of individuals and organizations in civil society in relation to human rights corresponding to three different phases: shifting norms, making law, and monitoring implementation. These activities are illustrated with two case studies: norm-shifting activities in relation to economic and social rights, and lawmaking and monitoring activities in relation to the International Criminal Court.


David L. Richards and Ronald D. Gelleny

This chapter investigates the relationship between economic globalization and government respect for two subcategories of international human rights known as physical integrity rights and empowerment rights. It begins with an overview of different theoretical approaches regarding the relationship between economic globalization and government respect for human rights. It then reviews research findings from the quantitative literature analysing this relationship. It also conducts an original study using quantitative methods to determine whether a developing country's ability to attract foreign direct investment is affected by its level of governmental respect for human rights. The results show that governments that respect their citizens' physical integrity and empowerment rights will be better able to attract foreign economic capital.


This chapter examines the importance of comparative politics for understanding human rights practices. Comparative politics has advanced our knowledge of why states sometimes violate internationally recognized human rights. Both domestic incentives and exclusionary ideologies increase the likelihood of rights violations. On the other hand, comparative politics has attempted to explain human rights protection, showing how domestic structures (both societal groups and state institutions) can influence reform efforts. This chapter first consider alternative logics of comparison, including the merits of comparing a small versus a large number of cases and human rights within or across regions. It then explores the leading domestic-level explanations for why human rights violations occur. It also describes the use of domestic–international linkages to explain otherwise perplexing human rights outcomes. Finally, it analyses the ways in which, in the context of globalization, comparative politics shapes human rights practices.