From the Stockholm Summit to the Sustainable Development Goals
- Jean-Frédéric Morin, Jean-Frédéric MorinFull Professor, Université Laval, Québec, Canada
- Amandine OrsiniAmandine OrsiniProfessor, Université Saint-Louis, Bruxelles
- and Sikina JinnahSikina JinnahAssociate Professor of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, US
This chapter addresses environmental protection and economic development. These two policy objectives are at once contradictory and complementary; they cannot be considered separately as one necessarily affects the other. The chapter adopts a historical approach and studies how interactions between these two policy objectives have been understood since the early 1970s. To do so, it first introduces three different views — systemic, liberal, and structural — on how environmental protection and economic development interact. It goes on to assess the resonances of each of these views in key global instruments adopted in the last 50 years: the 1972 Stockholm Declaration, the 1987 Brundtland Report, the outcomes of the 1992 Rio Summit, the 2002 Declaration of the Johannesburg Summit, and the 2012 Rio Declaration. One of the main conclusions of the chapter is that a liberal understanding of the relationship between environmental protection and economic development has been gaining increased prominence over time.